All medical disciplines are concentrated in the Institute to provide comprehensive oncological care, which includes prevention, epidemiology, diagnostics, individual modalities of anti-cancer treatment and rehabilitation. We focus on scientific research activities, including basic research and provide pre- and post-graduate training for doctors and health professionals and educational activities aimed at the general public.

The Institute is a directly managed organisation of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic, it plays the role of the main coordinator of oncological care for adults with solid tumours in the South Moravian Region and in cooperation with the University Hospital Brno and St. Anne's University Hospital it creates a joint Comprehensive Oncology Centre, which has the status of a National Oncology Centre in the network of Czech comprehensive oncology centres.

The Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute is an internationally recognised institution, an accredited member of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI), a member of the The European Reference Network (ERN) on Rare Adult Solid Cancers (EURACAN) and Geneetic Tumour Risk Syndromes (GENTURIS). Its international status gives patients the guarantee of care in the same way as in other major European cancer centres.